English pronunciation

Learning the correct pronunciation of words in English is one of the biggest problems most students have. The reason for this is because in spoken English not only different vowels may sound the same, for example, all the following remarked letters approximately sound like a Spanish { i }:

  • build, busy, hit, mystery, pretty, sieve, women

but also because a given vowel may have different sounds:

  • arm (sounds between a and o), ate (sounds like ei), bad (sounds like a), many (sounds like e)

One of the best methods to solve this problem is to carefully listen to the way native English speakers speak and to repeat what has been heard, however, a student may also benefit from using a speech transcription system.

Transcription systems

Speech can be transcribed in two ways:

  1. Phonemic transcription

    Sometimes known as broad transcription, this method involves representing speech using just a unique symbol for each phoneme of the language.

    For example, the word tenth could be transcribed like this: tɛnθ, showing that the word consists of four sounds and where each sound was represented in a unique way.

  2. Phonetic transcription

    Sometimes known as narrow transcription, involves representing additional details about the contextual variations in pronunciation that occur in normal speech.

    In this case, the word tenth could now be transcribed like this: tʰɛ̃n̪θ, which gives a very precise indication of how to pronounce it: an aspirated initial { t }, a nasalised vowel, a nasal articulated at the interdental place of articulation and an interdental fricative.

The basic difference between these two methods is that the phonetical transcription (placed between square brackets: x) is used to represent actual sounds in terms of their acoustic and articulatory properties, and that the phonemical transcription (placed between forward slash brackets: x) is used to represent abstract mental constructs, not actual sounds.

This basically means that while in English there is an aspirated { t } () and a non aspirated one (t), and an English speaker produces each without thinking about it when speaking, this same speaker will hear them both just as a { t } (instances of the phoneme t) because contextual variations in pronunciation aren’t actually perceived.

Through the years, many different phonetic alphabets have been developed but currently, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) has become the standard for the phonetic representation not only of English, but of any language.

Regarding phonemic systems, Gimson’s is the most popular one, it is based on the IPA.

As a phoneme is only a mental representation of a sound, Gimson’s system uses only one of the possible IPA symbols to represent each phoneme, this way, the phoneme { t } is represented with the { t } character, like this: t.

The main purpose of this Web page is to show the IPA symbols used in the phonemic system to represent the vowel and consonant sounds in English.

Before continuing reading and studying this document, please see the videos from the following YouTube playlist:

lang - inglés 02a - pronunciación, intro

This playlist contains an introductory video to the idea and purpose behind transcription systems, a couple of videos reviewing the English alphabet with the corresponding phonemes for each letter, and three brief videos presenting all the phonemes for the English language. Carefully reviewing this playlist will allow you to understand and get familiar with these phonemes very quickly.

If you need it, remember that you can click on the Caption button at the video toolbar to shown the video subtitled:

YouTube captions button

The English alphabet

The following table shows each letter of the English alphabet with its phonemic transcription and how it roughly sounds in Spanish.

Letter Phoneme Sound
A a ei
B b biː bi
C c siː si
D d diː di
E e i
F f ɛf ef
G g ʤiː yi
H h eɪʧ eich
I i ai
J j ʤeɪ yei
K k keɪ kei
L l ɛl el
M m ɛm em
Letter Phoneme Sound
N n ɛn en
O o , əʊ, əu ou
P p piː pi
Q q kjuː kiu
R r ɑrː ar
S s ɛs es
T t tiː ti
U u juː iu
V v viː vi
W v dʌbəl juː dobl iu
X x ɛks ex
Y y waɪ uai
Z z zɛd, ziː zi

The following table shows the letters of the English alphabet grouped by their vowel sound.

a h j k        
b c d e g p t v
e f l m n s x z  
i y            
əʊ o w            
juː q u            
ɑːr r              

English language uses 26 written letters but it needs 44 phoneme symbols to represent all of its sounds. This 44 sounds can be grouped into three categories: vowels, digraphs and consonants. The following sections will show each of these phonemes.

Important notes

  1. The actual American or British r-sound is represented by the IPA symbol ɹ, but Gimson’s system uses the IPA symbol r, which actually corresponds to a different r-sound, like the one used in Spanish. So, instead of having the word rule transcribed as ɹuːl, it is actually transcribed as ruːl. This evidently makes the process of transcribing a word much easier, but it forces students to always keep in mind that r is a soft sound: ɹ, not a hard one: r.
  2. In British English (BrE) the { r } is not pronounced unless the sound comes before a vowel (e.g. answering, answer it). In American English (AmE), the { r } is always pronounced. To avoid having to use two different transcriptions for a single word, the symbol ʳ is used instead (e.g. ɑʳ, əʳ, ɜʳ). This way, instead of having to transcribe the word bar as: bɑːr (AmE) and bɑː (BrE), it is transcribed just as bɑːʳ, this indicates that the { r } is pronounced in American English but not in British English.
  3. In some AmE only dictionaries the sounds eəʳ, ɪəʳ, ʊəʳ tend to be respectively written as er, ɪr, ʊr; for example, ˈdɪəʳst (dearest) is written as ˈdɪrəst.
  4. In AmE, ɑː and ɒ are one vowel, so the words calm and cot have the same vowel. In AmE transcriptions, the word hot is written as hɑːt (listen to the AmE and BrE pronunciations: English pronunciation of hot and see its transcriptions: Definition of hot).
  5. In many varieties of English ɔː is pronounced the same way as ɑː, so the words caught and cot are pronounced with an identical vowel sound (they are homophones; see the Cot–caught merger).
  6. In American transcriptions, ɔː is often written as ɒː (e.g. law = lɒː), unless it is followed by an { r }, in which case it remains an ɔː.
  7. The actual e-sound in the words bed or met is represented by the phone (phonetic symbol) ɛ, but once again, to ease the transcription process some dictionaries use the e phoneme; for example, instead of having the word bed transcribed as bɛd, one may find it transcribed as bed. This also applies for ɛə, which can be found as . It is important then to keep in mind that e should be pronounced like ɛ and not like e.
  8. While has traditionally been represented as əʊ in British transcriptions, for some BrE speakers and most AmE speakers, is actually more appropriate because they use a rounded vowel.
  9. The vertical line symbol (ˈ) indicates word stress. It is usually placed before the stressed syllable in a word, for example: ˈkɒntrækt (contract) vs. kənˈtrækt (contract).
  10. It should be noted that there aren’t really any rigid pronunciation rules. The symbols shown in this document are only to give a general idea of how certain words are pronounced.


A vowel can be defined as a continuous sound produced by:

  • The vibration of the air flowing through the vocal chords.
  • The outline of the space formed between the tongue and the roof of the mouth.
  • The shape of the lips.

The IPA uses 28 phonetic symbols to represent the basic vowel sounds that can be made by changing the position of the tongue and the shape of the lips.

The IPA also has some special symbols to represent variations to these basic sounds. For example, a vowel can be short or long depending on the duration of the sound. Long vowels are indicated with the IPA long symbol (ː) after them.

The image shows the 28 IPA vowel symbols and their relative position in the vowel space.

Vowel space

For each language in the world only a small subset of these symbols is usually needed to depict the sound of its vowels.

For example, Spanish and English have the same written vowels: { a, e, i, o, u }, but as can be seen from the image at the right, the number of symbols required to represent the sound of vowels in English is greater than the one required for Spanish.

English vowel space

The position of the tongue determines if a vowel is open or close, and front or back

The shape of the lips determines if the resulting vowel is rounded or not.

Position of the tongue and shape of the lips

  • In front vowels the tongue is pushed to the front and raised towards the alveolar ridge.
  • In back vowels the tongue is drawn to the back of the mouth (palate).
  • In closed vowels the tongue is raised to decrease the space between it and the roof of the mouth.
  • In open vowels the tongue is lowered to increase that space.
  • In rounded vowels the lips are rounded.
  • In extended vowels the lips are spread out.

For example, i is a Front, Close, Extended vowel, but ɒ is a Back, Open, Rounded one.

Just as a reference, the sound of the symbols that are identical to those in the Latin alphabet (a, e, i, o, u) is roughly equivalent to the sound of the corresponding vowels in Spanish:

Symbol Sounds like
a casa
e dedo
i cine
o ojo
u luna

The sounds of English vowels

Before reading and studying this section, please review at least once the videos of the following YouTube playlist:

lang - inglés 02b - pronunciación, vocales largas y cortas

These videos deal only with the English long and short vowel sounds.

Long and short sounds

A vowel in English can have a “long” sound, when it sounds like its name, and a “short” sound, in which case it sounds roughly similar to the equivalent Spanish vowel.

A, a 
E, e 
I, i 
O, o 
U, u 
“Long” sound Example
ate, gate, name
evil, me, she
ice, bite, hi
, əʊ, əu bone, go
juː use, universe
crude, rule
“Short” sound Example
æ am, cat, sack
ɛ edge, bet, nest
ɪ bit, panic
ɒ dog, odd, top
ʊ full, put
ʌ under, up

Sounds based on their position or on accompanying letters

The following are just a few basic, general rules that will help you know how to pronounce many words.

Only one vowel in the word, not located at the end of a word

When there is only one vowel in a word and it is not at the end of a word, it usually has a short sound.

ant æ net ɛ pin ɪ got ɒ sun ʌ

Only one vowel in the word, located at the end of a word

Where there is only one vowel and it comes at the end of the word, it usually has a long sound.

she go

Two vowels in a word, ending with the vowel { e }

When there are two or more vowels and the word ends with the vowel { e }, the vowel before it has a long sound and the ending { e } is silent.

gate side some ə hole tune juː

Two different vowels together in a word

When two vowels are together, the first one has a long sound and the second one is silent.

rain tied seal cheat

One vowel followed by two same consonants

When a word has a vowel followed by two same consonants together (a double consonant), the vowel has a short sound.

bitter ɪ summer ʌ pull ʊ

Double same vowels, not { o }

When a word has two same vowels together (a double vowel), they are pronounced as one with a long sound (this rule does not apply if the double vowel is an { o }).

meet vacuum juə

Double { o } vowel

When the double vowel is an { o }, it may have different sounds.

pool book ʊ door ɔː

The letter { y } as a vowel

Sometimes the letter { y } can be defined as a vowel because depending on its position in the word or on the letters around it, it can sound like a vowel.

Middle { y }   Ending { y }  
symbol ɪ happy i
rhyme cry

English phonemic vowels

Before reading and studying this section, please review at least once the videos of the following YouTube playlist:

lang - inglés 02c - pronunciación, vocales

These videos deal only with the English phonemic vowels.

The following tables group several words according to their phonemic vowels.

The words in each group were arranged first by the corresponding written vowel or diphtong (shown remarked) and then in alphabetical order.

Some groups include two symbols, the second one represents another way to transcribe the pronunciation of the vowel sound.

Carefully repeat each word several times, trying to reproduce its correct sound. To be sure about the correct sound related to each phoneme you may use one of the many interactive phonetic charts available in Internet (there are several references at the end of this document).

beet, deed, fleece, free, green, meet, see, seem, seen, sheep, sleep, tree

bead, eat, heat, meat, sea, seat, team, weak

evil, me, scene * machine * ceiling, receive * siege


radiate, glorious * happy, mystery


bid, bit, did, fish, grin, him, hit, in, it, kit, minute, miss, missed, mist

ship, sin, sink, sit, tin

pretty * women * busy * hymn, mystery * build * sieve


bed, beg, bet, dress, fen, get, hell, lent, less, men, mess, met, sell, set, ten

many * said * says * head, pleasure, weather * leisure * bury


am, apple, ask, at * back, bad, bag, ban, band, black, can, cat, dad, damage

had, ham, hat, jab, lamb, lass, man, marry, pat, sang, sat, stamp, tack, trap


about, above, alone, around, at, attack, away * standard

after, maker, mother, observer, potter, teacher

cinema, item, suddenly * the * edible, similar

obey * doctor, gallop, common, to * circus, impetus * nation


fern, her, herb, herd, refer, term, were * bird, firm, girl, sir, stir

work, worm, word

burn, burr, cur, curse, curt, fur, hurl, lurk, nurse, purr, purse, turn

earth * heard, learn, yearn


boon, boot, food, fool, goose, mood, moon, pool, too, wooed, zoo

do, to, whose * crude, fluke, Luke, rule

new * shoe * group, soup, through, you * blue, true * suit * two


influence, situation * you


cushion, full, pull, puss, put * woman

book, foot, good, hood, look, room, soot, wood * could, should, would


come, done, love, money, monk, son, sun, ton, tongue, won, wonder, worry

under * bud, bun, but, cud, cup, cut, dub, duck, fun, fuss, hub

hull, hum, luck, much, mud, muss, putt, rum, strut, tuck

blood, flood * does * double, rough


born, boss, cord, for, form, horse, lord, north, or, torn * door

bore, more, score, sore * broad, roar * bought, course, four, thought

call, fall, talk, walk, warm, warn, war, was * caught, daub, fault, naught

awe, dawn, drawer, law, saw, thaw, yawn


arm, art, ask * bar, bark, barn, calm, car, card, cart, castle, dark

far, farm, fast, father, half, hard, Khan, lard, march, start, yarn

laugh * heart * guard


odd * bond, cod, cot, dock, dog, goblin, god, gossip, got, hod, hop, hot, job, jog

lot, not, pot, rock, sock, (song), (sorry), stop, yon * wander, want, wash

English phonemic diphthongs

Before reading and studying this section, please review at least once the videos of the following YouTube playlist:

lang - inglés 02d - pronunciación, diptongos

These videos deal only with the English phonemic diphthongs.

The following table groups several words according to their phonemic diphthongs.


here, mere, sincere * ear * beard, fear, near, weary, year

beer, deer, peer, seer * weird

bathe, brake, face, gate, make, male, mate, race, sale, same, tame, wade, waste

aim, bait, mail, main, nail, pain, paint, sail * day, may, say, way

break * eight * they


care, dare, fare, mare, rare, scarce, various * air, chair, fair, hair, pair, stair

there, where * bear, wear * their * square

bite, climb, dice, five, high, kind, mile, pine, pint, price, right, tile, wide, write

thigh * eye * height * tie * guide * buy * by, my, try * bye


hire, fire, wire

liar * buyer * tyre

out * loud, lounge, mouth * allowed, crowd, fowl, how, howl, now, town, vow


devour, our, scour, sour

bower, flower, glower, power, tower


cure, jury, pure * poor

tour, tourist


bone, go, hole, home, joke, mode, no, nose, phone, tone, vote, whole

boat, goat, load, loan, moan, soap * hoe * knows, owe, show, throw


coined, choice, join, noise, point, toil * boy, joy, toy

Contrasting English phonemic vowels and diphthongs

The following tables contrast several phonemic vowels and diphthongs.

ɪ bit bid did it sin
beet bead deed eat seen
me meet see seem team
may mate say same tame
aim bait gate main sale
ɛ “m” bet get men sell
ɛ bed “n” mess set ten
ɪ bid in miss sit tin
ɛ bed beg less men set
æ bad bag lass man sat
æ am ban back hat can
ɑː arm barn bark heart Khan
ɑː barn card farm lard  
ɔː born cord form lord  
ɔː caught dawn naught yawn  
ɒ cot Don not yon  
ɒ bond hod job pot song
æ band had jab pat sang
ɒ cod cot dock    
ɑːr card cart dark    
ɔː bought laud lawn awe  
boat load loan owe  
bone hose moan mode soap
boon whose moon mood soup
fool Luke pool suit wooed
ʊ full look pull soot would
hoe hole load no tone
how howl loud now town
ʌ bud but fun hull muss
ɛ bed bet fen hell mess
ʌ bud bun hum tuck  
æ bad dan ham tack  
ʌ bud bun cut hub hull
ɜːʳ bird burn curt herb hurl
ʌ cud luck putt rum  
ʊ could look put room  
ʌ but done dub fuss won
ɔː bought dawn daub force warn
ʌ come cud duck much  
ɑː calm card dark march  
ʌ but bun mud fun ton
boat bone mode phone tone
ɑː bar car hard yarn  
ɜːʳ burr cur heard yearn  
ʊ hood look puss wood  
ɜːʳ herd lurk purse word  
ɔː bore course sore torn  
ɜːʳ burr curse sir turn  
eəʳ bear care fair hair wear
ɜːʳ burr cur fur her were
ɪəʳ beard fear here peer seer
ɜːʳ bird fir her purr sir
mail may pain race wade
mile my pine rice wide
buy kind tie tile  
ɔɪ boy coined toy toil  

English phonemic consonants

Before reading and studying this section, please review at least once the videos of the following YouTube playlist:

lang - inglés 02e - pronunciación, consonantes

These videos deal only with the English phonemic consonants.

The following table shows the English phonemic consonants.


park, pay, pen, pest, pigeon, pond, pull * copy * cap, tip * pipe * apple, happen


back, bad, ban, bane, bee, berry, bone, book, boon, bus, bye * lab, job * baby


taught, tea, team, tire, told, town, tube, two, type * pet, set * button, getting

Thailand, Thames, thyme * tight


dare, day, dean, deep, deer, den, die * lady, rude * load * did * ladder, odd

char, chair, cheap, check, cheese, chew, choice, choke * teacher

arch, march, match, torch * church * capture, mature, nature

jack, jam, jar, jaw, jay, jeep, jet, jeer, joke, joy, jump, just

gene, gist * age, large, lounge * soldier * judge


Kansas, keen, keep, key, kick, kill, kosher, kudos * back, clock, deck, pack

came, car, cat, coal, coast, could * ache, scheme, school

quake, quality, queen, question, quintet, quiet, quorum, quotation


game, gas, gate, get, give, go, guy * flag * giggle * ghastly, ghat, ghee, ghost


hand, hat, hello, him, hole, hot, house, how * ahead * who, whole, whom


mad, mate, me, meat, mere, mine, mode, moon, my * lamp * hammer

jam, sum * lamb


nail, name, near, neck, nice, night, no, now, nuclear, nude, number, nymph

canny, funny, sunny * can, man, sun, ten

knack, knead, knee, knife, knight, knock, knot, know, knuckle


anger, angst, English, finger, singer, tongue * fang, long, ring, sing, sung

ankle, drank, thanks, monk


fan, fat, feel, fine, fish * if * coffee * phantasm * photo * cough, rough, tough


vampire, van, veal, very, view, vine, voice, vulture * five, heavy, live, move


thank, thaw, theater, theme, thick, thigh, thin, thing, think

thought, throw, thumb, thunder

athlete, author, ether, ethic * bath, both, earth, loath, path


than, that, the, then, there, they, thine, this, tho, though, thus, thy

bathe, mother, other, soothe * smooth


safe, sail, say, seal, season, see, sink, sip, soft, solar, subject, summary

class, mass, miss

cease, cedar, celebrate, cellar, cemetery, cider, cipher, circle, city


zap, zeal, zero, zinc, zipper, zodiac, zone, zoo, zucchini, zygote

crazy, lazy * buzz * easy, music, noise, observer, president, rose, season


she, sheaf, sheep, shin, shine, ship, shoe, shop * cushion

cash, dish, fish, crash * sugar, sure * mansion * mention, national


casual * mision, vision * censure, leisure, measure, pleasure * seizure


lamp, lay, leg, lemon, letter, lie, lion, look, lord, lot, low

little * dolly, trolley, valley * call, cell, mall, pull, roll


rabbit, reason, ribbon, road, run, rust * cry, pride, try * river, robber

arrange, berry, carry, merry, sorry * car, tar

wrack, wrap, wreak, wreath, wriggle, wring, write, wrong, wrung


yak, yam, yard, yaw, year, yeast, yellow, yes, yet, yield, yoke, yolk, you

(juː) universe, university, use * mule, tube * beauty * few, new


want, war, was, way, we, went, wet, wine, with, wood, work

widow, willow, window * when, where

(kw) queen * () one

Contrasting English phonemic consonants

The following table contrasts some English phonemic consonants.

b- ban bane berry bee  
v- van vein very “v”  
d- dare day den die dough
ð- there they then thy though
f- fan fat feel fine  
v- van vat veal vine  
d- day dean deep deer don
dʒ- jay gene jeep jeer John
j- yak yam yaw yet yoke
dʒ- jack jam jaw jet joke
ʃ- sheaf sheep shin shoe shop
tʃ- chief cheap chin chew chop
s- seal sink sip sue sown
z- zeal zinc zip zoo zone
t- team tick tin taught  
θ- theme thick thin thought  
tʃ- char cheap cheer choke  
dʒ- jar jeep jeer joke  

Reading exercises

Practice reading the following sentences several times aloud. You should be able to distinctly pronounce the contrasting words.

Contrast ɪ and

He did a good deed.

Please sit on this seat.

If he eats that eel he’ll feel ill.

He took a quick dip in a deep pool.

Did you say “seen” or “sin”? I said “sin”.

The team seems to have missed the scene because of the mist.

Contrast and

I sometimes feel weak when I wake up.

Don’t go on the lake in that leaky boat.

The former past form of “speak” was “spake”.

Did you say “reason” or “raisin”? I said “reason”.

You have to pay a steep price for a nice piece of meat.

This room doesn’t seem to be the same as the other one.

Contrast ɛ and

I told them to test it, not taste it.

She wants less lace on her dress.

Don’t put the pepper on that wet paper.

We only stayed ten days instead of eleven.

Contrast ɪ and ɛ

Tell him to lift his left arm.

I hope she will be well soon.

The bird hid its head under its wing.

Women like beer less than men.

Contrast ɛ and æ

I said I was sad.

Men” is the plural form of “man”.

Ten minutes in the sun will tan your back.

Don’t bend that rubber band around your hand.

This cold weather sent me back to bed.

Contrast æ and ɑː

Can you see a cat in that cart?

A black ant bit my aunt in the hand.

My father is going to marry Pat in a castle.

After the man sang with all his heart, he had a good laugh.

There is a dark man hiding at the back of the black car, he is armed.

Contrast ʊ and

There is some soot in your suit.

Please pull the dog out of the pool.

I was a fool to believe the pot was full.

Contrast ʌ and ɑː

Please come in, it is calm now.

There isn’t much sunshine in March.

The heart pumps the blood through the body.

Contrast ɒ and ɑːr

Don can’t darn his socks.

You should not wander at the dock when it’s dark.

He got a shock when he saw a shark in the water.

Contrast ɑː and ɔː

Part of the port is built near the old fort.

People who won’t close doors are said to have been “born in a barn”.

I like to walk through the farm on warm, calm days.

The lord saw the guards half asleep in the barn.

To fry the chicken you have to daub the pan with lard.

Contrast ɒ and ɔː

Don went off at dawn to a walk.

Did you say “fond” or “fawned”? I said “fond”.

I thought he said “stock”, but I think he meant “stalk”.

He told his boss he was not going to do that kind of jobs.

A synonym for “naught” is “not anything”.

Contrast æ and ɒ

The cat sat on the baby’s cot.

It was hot, but he didn’t take off his hat.

The rocks were bond together with a rubber band.

Everyone felt sad when she sang that old song.

The hod had a very short handle.

Contrast ɔː and

Paul bought a small boat.

We are going to get a loan to fix the lawn.

Claude caught his coat on a nail.

The horse had a broken bone.

Contrast and

The pole fell into the pool.

I like a coal fire in the cool season.

Don’t let that soap fall into the soup.

The past form of “choose” is “chose”.

Contrast ɑː and ɜːʳ

She acted the part of a pert child.

The bard wrote a poem about a bird.

Educated people say “learn” not “larn”.

That fire is going to burn down the barn.

Contrast ʌ and ɜːʳ

These buns look very burnt.

Those little girls love to feed the gulls.

You have to work to have some money.

I heard her son won a fern at work.

Contrast ɛ and ʌ

I bet he was going to win, but he didn’t.

He sits at his desk from dawn to dusk.

If the weather is good I’ll bury the money.

Contrast æ and ʌ

Those bags are full of bugs.

This sticky mud is driving me mad.

It is a bit rash to rush things.

Contrast ʌ and

There is a bottle of rum in the room.

This oven will prove to be a real boon to make a morning bun.

Contrast ɔː and ʌ

I bought this book, but I didn’t like it.

The lawn will be done before dawn.

Contrast ʊ and ɜːʳ

I would like to hear a word from you.

I think I heard a noise under the hood.

The girl stood and stirred the soup.

Contrast ɜːʳ and ɔː

This shirt is a bit short for me.

Sir, I’m sorry, but I have a sore throat.

The cat purred while I poured out its milk.

Contrast ʌ and

All he does is doze all day long.

Children like to have fun with a phone.

The men had to load a ton of mud.

Contrast and

You may come into my room.

I had to walk a mile to get my mail.

How much did you pay for that pie?

Contrast ɔɪ and

Roy likes to eat rye bread.

What’s the point in drinking a pint of water?

The boy went to buy a tie to use it as a toy.

Contrast and

Oh no, don’t go just now.

There is a bone buried in the ground.

They shouted loud after seeing the load.

Contrast ɜːʳ and eəʳ

I like the way she does her hair.

If I were you I would not wear that suit.

That seems a fair price for real fur.

Contrast ɜːʳ and ɪəʳ

I’m sure her keys aren’t here.

I wish I were a seer to predict the future.

I fear I’ll have to cut down that old fir tree.

Contrast b- and v-

That berry is very small.

A ban was imposed on that kind of van.

A “vat” is a large barrel used to store liquids.

This is the best vest we have in store.

Contrast d- and ð-

I wouldn’t dare to go there.

They stayed there all day.

Those lazy dogs just doze in the sun all the time.

This dough is not ready yet.

Contrast f- and v-

We installed a fan in the new van.

Only a few people have seen this view.

I feel that veal is a bit expensive.

Contrast d- and dʒ-

Don went to visit John.

He dug an old jug out of the ground.

That joke made my day.

Contrast j- and dʒ-

I have yet to fly in a jet.

The guard was wearing a yellow jacket.

John was seen yawning at the sermon.

Contrast tʃ- and ʃ-

That dog chew my shoe!

That chain has a strange shape.

I’m afraid you’ll have to share a chair.

Contrast s- and z-

That sink is made of zink.

Sue went to the zoo to see the seals and the zebras.

The whole zone was under siege.

Contrast t- and θ-

That tin seems very thin.

Today I have been extremely thirsty.

I thought he taught English.

Contrast dʒ- and tʃ-

The jeep was very cheap.

Jane put a chain on her bike.

The jam was completely charred.

Contrast ð- and θ-

Rather than forgetting, she thanked me.

I don’t agree; an interesting thought, though.

I think those were the thieves at the theater tonight.


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